• My lab aims to understand virus structure and the structure-function relationships involved in the processes of viral replication, including virus-host interactions, capsid structure and polynucleotide synthesis. Toward this goal, we have used structural techniques (cryo-electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography and small angle x-ray scattering) alongside biochemistry and classical virology techniques to study viral proteins from negative strand RNA viruses (NSV: influenza A, mumps, rabies virus, VSV) and retroviruses (HIV). This dual approach has been successful in producing near atomic-level snapshots of many complex protein assemblies as well as enabling a fast-track to novel biological discovery and new experimental design. Professionally, my expertise in structural biology has lead to my collaboration with investigators locally, nationally and internationally on viral, bacterial, human and murine targets.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2021 Consequences of phosphorylation in a mononegavirales polymerase-cofactor systemJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Structure of nonstructural protein 1 from SARS-CoV-2Journal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2020 The connector domain of vesicular stomatitis virus large protein interacts with the viral phosphoproteinJournal of Virology.  94. 2020
    2019 Transcriptional control and mRNA capping by the GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase domain of the rabies virus large proteinViruses.  11. 2019
    2019 A dual-functional priming-capping loop of rhabdoviral RNA polymerases directs terminal de novo initiation and capping intermediate formationNucleic Acids Research.  47:299-309. 2019
    2019 Defining HIV-1 envelope N-glycan microdomains through site-specific heterogeneity profilesJournal of Virology.  93. 2019
    2019 RNA synthesis and capping by nonsegmented negative strand RNA viral polymerases: Lessons from a prototypic virusFrontiers in Microbiology.  10. 2019
    2019 The emerging role of complement proteins as a target for therapy of IgA nephropathyFrontiers in Immunology.  10. 2019
    2018 IBD risk loci are enriched in multigenic regulatory modules encompassing putative causative genesNature Communications.  9. 2018
    2018 Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of inhibition of influenza virus NS1 by two antiviral compoundsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  293:14659-14668. 2018
    2018 Mutations in Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase that lead to dramatically increased in vivo polyphosphate levelsJournal of Bacteriology.  200. 2018
    2018 Erratum: Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controlsScientific Data.  5:180002. 2018
    2017 Data Descriptor: Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controlsScientific Data.  4. 2017
    2017 A low-frequency inactivating AKT2 variant enriched in the finnish population is associated with fasting insulin levels and type 2 diabetes riskDiabetes.  66:2019-2032. 2017
    2016 Crystal structures of group B streptococcus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Apo-form, binary and ternary complexesPLoS ONE.  11. 2016
    2016 The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetesNature.  536:41-47. 2016
    2016 Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formationNucleic Acids Research.  44:330-341. 2016
    2016 Structure and function of the N-terminal domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymeraseJournal of Virology.  90:715-724. 2016
    2015 Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility lociNature Genetics.  47:1415-1425. 2015
    2015 Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 LocusPLoS Genetics.  11. 2015
    2015 High-density mapping of the MHC identifies a shared role for HLA-DRB1∗01:03 in inflammatory bowel diseases and heterozygous advantage in ulcerative colitisNature Genetics.  47:172-179. 2015
    2014 Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in African Americans Provides Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Type 2 DiabetesPLoS Genetics.  10. 2014
    2014 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from Mycobacterium tuberculosisActa Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications.  70:414-417. 2014
    2014 Common mechanism for RNA encapsidation by negative-strand RNA virusesJournal of Virology.  88:3766-3775. 2014
    2014 Rare variants in PPARG with decreased activity in adipocyte differentiation are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes 2014
    2013 Structural and functional characterization of the mumps virus phosphoproteinJournal of Virology.  87:7558-7568. 2013
    2013 Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA polymerizationNucleic Acids Research.  41:5912-5926. 2013
    2013 Mutations causing medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 lie in a large VNTR in MUC1 missed by massively parallel sequencingNature Genetics.  45:299-303. 2013
    2012 Transancestral mapping of the MHC region in systemic lupus erythematosus identifies new independent and interacting loci at MSH5, HLA-DPB1 and HLA-GAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases.  71:777-784. 2012
    2012 Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: A multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individualsPLoS Genetics.  8. 2012
    2012 Common genetic variants differentially influence the transition from clinically defined states of fasting glucose metabolismDiabetologia.  55:331-339. 2012
    2012 A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in african americansPLoS ONE.  7. 2012
    2012 Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese casesPLoS Genetics.  8. 2012
    2011 Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with a variant in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1American Journal of Human Genetics.  89:619-627. 2011
    2011 Deep resequencing of GWAS loci identifies independent rare variants associated with inflammatory bowel diseaseNature Genetics.  43:1066-1073. 2011
    2011 Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasmaNature Genetics.  43:1131-1138. 2011
    2011 Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriersHuman Genetics.  130:685-699. 2011
    2011 Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetesDiabetes.  60:2624-2634. 2011
    2011 Candidate gene association study for diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes: The candidate gene association resource (CARe)Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science.  52:7593-7602. 2011
    2011 Access to RNA encapsidated in the nucleocapsid of vesicular stomatitis virusJournal of Virology.  85:2714-2722. 2011
    2011 A meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans identifies IL18RAP, PTPN2, TAGAP, and PUS10 as shared risk loci for crohn's disease and celiac diseasePLoS Genetics.  7. 2011
    2011 Erratum: Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility lociNature Genetics.  43:388. 2011
    2011 Erratum: Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysisNature Genetics.  43:388. 2011
    2010 Structure of human Stabilin-1 Interacting Chitinase-Like Protein (SI-CLP) reveals a saccharide-binding cleft with lower sugar-binding selectivityJournal of Biological Chemistry.  285:39898-39904. 2010
    2010 Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancerPLoS Genetics.  6:1-12. 2010
    2010 Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysisNature Genetics.  42:579-589. 2010
    2010 Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility lociNature Genetics.  42:332-337. 2010
    2010 Cryo-EM model of the bullet-shaped vesicular stomatitis virusScience.  327:689-693. 2010
    2010 Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility lociNature Genetics.  42:1118-1125. 2010
    2009 Mapping of multiple susceptibility variants within the MHC region for 7 immune-mediated diseases 2009
    2009 Characterization of a mumps virus nucleocapsidlike particleJournal of Virology.  83:11402-11406. 2009
    2009 A genome-wide linkage and association scan reveals novel loci for autismNature.  461:802-808. 2009
    2009 Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the small polymerase cofactor, P 2009
    2009 Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on SI-CLP, a novel human Glyco-18 domain-containing protein 2009
    2008 MAST3: A novel IBD risk factor that modulates TLR4 signalingGenes and Immunity.  9:602-612. 2008
    2008 Structural and functional insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2Journal of Biological Chemistry.  283:15789-15798. 2008
    2008 Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autismObstetrical and Gynecological Survey.  63:361-363. 2008
    2008 Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autismNew England Journal of Medicine.  358:667-675. 2008
    2008 Genome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for Crohn's diseaseNature Genetics.  40:955-962. 2008
    2008 Role of intermolecular interactions of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein in RNA encapsidationJournal of Virology.  82:674-682. 2008
    2007 Conserved characteristics of the rhabdovirus nucleoproteinVirus Research.  129:246-251. 2007
    2007 Structural comparisons of the nucleoprotein from three negative strand RNA virus familiesVirology Journal.  4. 2007
    2007 A second major histocompatibility complex susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosisAnnals of Neurology.  61:228-236. 2007
    2007 Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for Crohn disease and implicates autophagy in disease pathogenesisNature Genetics.  39:596-604. 2007
    2007 Identification of two independent risk factors for lupus within the MHC in United Kingdom familiesPLoS Genetics.  3:2109-2121. 2007
    2006 A high-resolution HLA and SNP haplotype map for disease association studies in the extended human MHCNature Genetics.  38:1166-1172. 2006
    2006 A molecular-properties-based approach to understanding PDZ domain proteins and PDZ ligands 2006
    2006 Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein-RNA complexScience.  313:357-360. 2006
    2006 Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a modulator of CARMA1-mediated NF-κB activationMolecular and Cellular Biology.  26:5497-5508. 2006
    2006 Resolution improvement of X-ray diffraction data of crystals of a vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid protein oligomer complexed with RNAActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  62:498-504. 2006
    2006 Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the nucleocapsid protein of Bunyamwera virus 2006
    2006 Crystal structure of the oligomerization domain of the phosphoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virusJournal of Virology.  80:2808-2814. 2006
    2004 Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a proteinase-K-resistant domain within the phosphoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana)Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  60:2087-2090. 2004
    2004 Inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci defined by genome scan meta-analysis of 1952 affected relative pairsHuman Molecular Genetics.  13:763-770. 2004
    2004 Visualizing the RNA Molecule in the Bacterially Expressed Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleoprotein-RNA ComplexStructure.  12:227-235. 2004
    2003 Expression, purification, crystallization of fragments from the C-terminal region of DFF45/ICADActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  59:1323-1326. 2003
    2001 Genetic variation in the 5q31 cytokine gene cluster confers susceptibility to Crohn diseaseNature Genetics.  29:223-228. 2001
    2001 A susceptibility locus for asthma-related traits on chromosome 7 revealed by genome-wide scan in a founder populationNature Genetics.  28:87-91. 2001
    2000 Genomewide search in Canadian families with inflammatory bowel disease reveals two novel susceptibility lociAmerican Journal of Human Genetics.  66:1863-1870. 2000
    2000 Study of the assembly of vesicular stomatitis virus N protein: Role of the P proteinJournal of Virology.  74:9515-9524. 2000
    1998 Absence of linkage between inflammatory bowel disease and selected loci on chromosomes 3, 7, 12, and 16Gastroenterology.  115:1062-1065. 1998
    1998 Familial eosinophilia maps to the cytokine gene cluster on human chromosomal region 5q31-q33American Journal of Human Genetics.  63:1086-1094. 1998
    1997 Role of sialyloligosaccharide binding in Theiler's virus persistenceJournal of Virology.  71:9701-9712. 1997
    1995 A Cytotoxic Diacetylene fromDendropanax arboreus 1995
    1995 An Antibacterial Vitamin E Derivative fromTovomitopsis psychotriifolia 1995


    Year Title Altmetric
    2011 Assembly of vesicular stomatitis virus.  175-192. 2011

    Research Overview

  • The targets of my current NIH funded research are to understand the processes of NSV polynucleotide synthesis from the view of the template (a complex between the viral genome and the nucleocapsid) as well as the polymerase machinery (a complex between the L protein, P protein and potentially host factors).
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham 2002
  • Bachelor of Science or Mathematics in Biology, University of Alabama in Huntsville 1994
  • Full Name

  • Todd Green