• My lab aims to understand the structure-function relationships involved in the processes of viral replication, virus-host interactions, capsid structure, polynucleotide synthesis and antibody-antigen complex formation. Toward this goal, we have used structural techniques (cryo-electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography and small angle x-ray scattering) and biochemistry to study: viral proteins from negative strand RNA viruses (NSV: influenza A, mumps, rabies virus, VSV), retroviruses (HIV), coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2), human antibodies (associated with IgA nephropathy), and bacteria (IgA1 proteases). This dual approach has been successful in producing near atomic-level snapshots of many complex protein assemblies as well as enabling a fast-track to novel biological discovery and new experimental design. Professionally, my expertise in structural biology has led to my collaboration with investigators locally, nationally and internationally on viral, bacterial, human and murine targets.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2022 Atomic view of the HIV-1 matrix lattice; implications on virus assembly and envelope incorporationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA.  119. 2022
    2022 GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase domain of vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase regulates leader-promoter escape and polyadenylation-coupled termination during stop-start transcriptionPLoS Pathogens.  18. 2022
    2021 Natural and recombinant SARS-CoV-2 isolates rapidly evolve in vitro to higher infectivity through more efficient binding to heparan sulfate and reduced S1/S2 cleavageJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Pathogenesis of iga nephropathy: Current understanding and implications for development of disease-specific treatmentJournal of Clinical Medicine.  10. 2021
    2021 NAP1L1 and NAP1L4 binding to hypervariable domain of Chikungunya Virus nsP3 protein is bivalent and requires phosphorylationJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Single-dose intranasal administration of AdCOVID elicits systemic and mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and fully protects mice from lethal challengeVaccines.  9. 2021
    2021 Water-soluble tocopherol derivatives inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. 2021
    2021 Natural isolate and recombinant SARS-CoV-2 rapidly evolve in vitro to higher infectivity through more efficient binding to heparan sulfate and reduced S1/S2 cleavage. 2021
    2021 NAP1L1 and NAP1L4 binding to Hypervariable Domain of Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Protein is bivalent and requires phosphorylation 2021
    2021 Consequences of phosphorylation in a mononegavirales polymerase-cofactor systemJournal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Structure of nonstructural protein 1 from SARS-CoV-2Journal of Virology.  95. 2021
    2021 Structural characterization of HIV-1 matrix mutants implicated in envelope incorporationJournal of Biological Chemistry.  296. 2021
    2020 Chlamydia trachomatis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Enzyme kinetics, high-resolution crystal structure, and plasminogen bindingProtein Science.  29:2446-2458. 2020
    2020 Structure of nonstructural protein 1 from SARS-CoV-2. 2020
    2020 Structural characterization of HIV-1 matrix mutants implicated in envelope incorporation 2020
    2020 The connector domain of vesicular stomatitis virus large protein interacts with the viral phosphoproteinJournal of Virology.  94. 2020
    2019 Transcriptional control and mRNA capping by the GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase domain of the rabies virus large proteinViruses.  11. 2019
    2019 A dual-functional priming-capping loop of rhabdoviral RNA polymerases directs terminal de novo initiation and capping intermediate formationNucleic Acids Research.  47:299-309. 2019
    2019 Defining HIV-1 envelope N-glycan microdomains through site-specific heterogeneity profilesJournal of Virology.  93. 2019
    2019 RNA synthesis and capping by nonsegmented negative strand RNA viral polymerases: Lessons from a prototypic virusFrontiers in Microbiology.  10. 2019
    2019 The emerging role of complement proteins as a target for therapy of IgA nephropathyFrontiers in Immunology.  10. 2019
    2018 Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of inhibition of influenza virus NS1 by two antiviral compoundsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  293:14659-14668. 2018
    2018 Mutations in Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase that lead to dramatically increased in vivo polyphosphate levelsJournal of Bacteriology.  200. 2018
    2016 Crystal structures of group B streptococcus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Apo-form, binary and ternary complexesPLoS One.  11. 2016
    2016 Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formationNucleic Acids Research.  44:330-341. 2016
    2016 Structure and function of the N-terminal domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymeraseJournal of Virology.  90:715-724. 2016
    2014 1.55 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of Rv3902c from Mycobacterium tuberculosisActa Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications.  70:414-417. 2014
    2014 Common mechanism for RNA encapsidation by negative-strand RNA virusesJournal of Virology.  88:3766-3775. 2014
    2013 Structural and functional characterization of the mumps virus phosphoproteinJournal of Virology.  87:7558-7568. 2013
    2013 Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA polymerizationNucleic Acids Research.  41:5912-5926. 2013
    2011 Access to RNA encapsidated in the nucleocapsid of vesicular stomatitis virusJournal of Virology.  85:2714-2722. 2011
    2010 Structure of human Stabilin-1 Interacting Chitinase-Like Protein (SI-CLP) reveals a saccharide-binding cleft with lower sugar-binding selectivityJournal of Biological Chemistry.  285:39898-39904. 2010
    2010 Cryo-EM model of the bullet-shaped vesicular stomatitis virusScience.  327:689-693. 2010
    2009 Characterization of a mumps virus nucleocapsidlike particleJournal of Virology.  83:11402-11406. 2009
    2009 Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the small polymerase cofactor, PProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA.  106:11713-11718. 2009
    2009 Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on SI-CLP, a novel human Glyco-18 domain-containing proteinProtein and Peptide Letters: international journal for rapid publication of short papers in protein and peptide science.  16:336-338. 2009
    2008 Structural and functional insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2Journal of Biological Chemistry.  283:15789-15798. 2008
    2008 Role of intermolecular interactions of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein in RNA encapsidationJournal of Virology.  82:674-682. 2008
    2007 Conserved characteristics of the rhabdovirus nucleoproteinVirus Research.  129:246-251. 2007
    2007 Structural comparisons of the nucleoprotein from three negative strand RNA virus familiesVirology Journal.  4. 2007
    2006 Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein-RNA complexScience.  313:357-360. 2006
    2006 Resolution improvement of X-ray diffraction data of crystals of a vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid protein oligomer complexed with RNAActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  62:498-504. 2006
    2006 Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the nucleocapsid protein of Bunyamwera virusActa Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications Online.  62:361-364. 2006
    2006 Crystal structure of the oligomerization domain of the phosphoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virusJournal of Virology.  80:2808-2814. 2006
    2004 Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a proteinase-K-resistant domain within the phosphoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana)Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  60:2087-2090. 2004
    2004 Visualizing the RNA Molecule in the Bacterially Expressed Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleoprotein-RNA ComplexStructure.  12:227-235. 2004
    2003 Expression, purification, crystallization of fragments from the C-terminal region of DFF45/ICADActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.  59:1323-1326. 2003
    2000 Study of the assembly of vesicular stomatitis virus N protein: Role of the P proteinJournal of Virology.  74:9515-9524. 2000
    1997 Role of sialyloligosaccharide binding in Theiler's virus persistenceJournal of Virology.  71:9701-9712. 1997
    1995 A cytotoxic diacetylene from Dendropanax arboreus.Planta Medica: natural products and medicinal plant research.  61:470-471. 1995
    1995 An antibacterial vitamin E derivative from Tovomitopsis psychotriifolia.Planta Medica: natural products and medicinal plant research.  61:275-276. 1995


    Year Title Altmetric
    2011 Assembly of vesicular stomatitis virus.  175-192. 2011

    Research Overview

  • My funded interests include: 1) Understanding of the processes of polynucleotide synthesis used by NSV. We are studying the complex mechanism of VSV transcription and replication from the view of the template (a complex between the viral genome and the nucleocapsid), as well as, the polymerase machinery (a complex between the L protein, P protein and potentially host factors); 2) Discovering the role of aberrant glycosylation patterns on the hinge region of IgA1 and recognition of these elements by IgG autoantibodies. The hallmark of the disease, IgA nephropathy (IgAN), is the accumulation of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the kidneys, which drive progressive renal injury in IgAN patients. Our UAB research groups have shown that the pathogenic immune complexes in IgAN consist of IgA1 with hinge-region O-glycans deficient in galactose (Gd-IgA1) and IgG autoantibodies that bind Gd-IgA1. We are characterizing IgG autoantibodies from IgAN patients and defining structural features of these autoantibodies that lead to pathogenic immune complex formation. 3) Understanding antibody recognition and neutralization of CoV spike (S) protein. Through a collaboration with University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers, my group has produced an array of CoV proteins to enable structural studies of viral antigen-antibody complexes; 4) Defining the role of N-linked glycans and microdomain clustering of glycans on GP120 of HIV. Here, we are using protein modeling to interpret glycan function and mutagenesis in the context of HIV infection. All of my projects involve proteins and/or human antibodies with each project having carbohydrates as a common element, including: ribose moieties as substrates, to RNA encapsidation, to more complex sugars adorning the surfaces of viral or host proteins, and finally to glycosylated peptides that are recognized by antibodies.
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham 2002
  • Bachelor of Science or Mathematics in Biology, University of Alabama in Huntsville 1994
  • Full Name

  • Todd Green