The circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNF-R1) and sTNF-R2 are altered in numerous diseases, including several types of cancer. Correlations with the risk of progression in some cancers, as well as systemic manifestations of the disease and therapeutic side-effects, have been described. However, there is very little information on the levels of these soluble receptors in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we report on an exploratory retrospective study of the levels of sTNF-Rs in the vascular circulation of patients with GBM. Banked samples were obtained from 112 GBM patients (66 untreated, newly-diagnosed patients and 46 with recurrent disease) from two institutions. The levels of sTNF-R1 in the plasma were significantly lower in patients with newly-diagnosed or recurrent GBM than apparently healthy individuals and correlated with the intensity of expression of TNF-R1 on the tumor-associated endothelial cells (ECs) in the corresponding biopsies. Elevated levels of sTNF-R1 in patients with recurrent, but not newly-diagnosed GBM, were significantly associated with a shorter survival, independent of age (p = 0.02) or steroid medication. In contrast, the levels of circulating sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in recurrent GBM than healthy individuals and there was no significant correlation with expression of TNF-R2 on the tumor-associated ECs or survival time. The results indicate that larger, prospective studies are warranted to determine the predictive value of the levels of sTNF-R1 in patients with recurrent GBM and the factors that regulate the levels of sTNF-Rs in the circulation in GBM patients.