In crustaceans, the synthesis of ecdysteroid molting hormones is regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced by an eyestalk neuroendocrine system, the X-organ/sinus gland complex. Using sequence analysis software, two regions of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) MIH peptide were selected for antibody production. Two 14-mer peptides were commercially synthesized and used to generate polyclonal antisera. Western blot analysis revealed that each antiserum bound to proteins of the predicted size in extracts of C. sapidus sinus glands, and lysates of insect cells containing recombinant MIH. Thin section immunocytochemistry using either antiserum showed specific immunoreactivity in X-organ neurosecretory cell bodies, their associated axons and collaterals, and their axon terminals in the sinus gland. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.