Centrosomes are unique cytoplasmic structures which serve as microtubule organizing centers (MTOC). In most animal cells centrosomes consist of one or more pair of centrioles surrounded by electron dense amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM) responsible for nucleation of microtubules. In the present study we analyzed the pattern of induction and localization of proteins of the PCM at different stages of neuronal development in cell cultures prepared from the embryonic hippocampus. For this purpose we used a human polyclonal antibody that recognizes two proteins of the PCM (100 kd and 60 kd, respectively). The results indicate that in mature neurons, pericentriolar immunoreactive material is preferentially localized in dendritic processes, and that throughout the course of neurite development and differentiation it is systematically excluded from the neuron's axon. Western blot analysis showed that during neuronal development in situ, there is an increase in he immunoreactivity for both proteins recognized by this antibody. In contrast, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons that develop in culture, there is an increase in the 60 kd polypeptide, while the 100 kd one is not detected after 7 days in vitro. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.