Allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response can be obtained following immunization of BALB/ c mice with C57BL/6 spleen cells. We investigated the possibility of behaviorally conditioning this response by associating the C57BL/6 spleen cell immunization [unconditioned stimulus (US)] with camphor odor [conditioned stimulus (CS)]. We reported the possible mechanisms involved in the conditioning of natural killer cell activity. Similar approaches were used to investigate the mechanisms that participate in the conditioned CTL activity. The first mechanism of investigation utilized opioid receptor blockers naltrexone and quaternary naltrexone. Naltrexone, which blocks both the central and peripheral opioid receptors, blocked the recall of the conditioned response, whereas quaternary naltrexone, which does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, was unable to block the conditioned response, demonstrating that centrally located opioid receptors play a role in the recall of the conditioned response. The studies are of interest because they indicate that resistance or susceptibility to various diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases might be influenced by the regulatory network of the CNS. © 1993.