We hypothesize that a number of host defense responses such as natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activity, antibody production, and elevated body temperature (TR)might be conditionable. We have designated such specifically learned response to be a defensive reflex response. Here we describe a simple single trial association paradigm for conditioning the TR response in BALB/c mice. Animals are conditioned on day 0 by exposing them to the odor of camphor for 1 hr, followed by injection of the pyrogen poly I:C 20μg ip. Control groups are injected with either poly I:C or saline and not exposed to the camphor odor. Reexposure of all groups to the conditioned stimulus (CS) on day 2 or 3 cause elevation of body temperature in the conditioned group mice but not in the nonconditioned or saline control groups. Since we have conditioned the natural killer cell response with the same paradigm, these results suggest that multiple defensive responses might be conditionable simultaneously and they might have important survival value for the species. © 1991.