PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A greater number of morbidly obese individuals are undergoing bariatric surgery, expanding the postbariatric surgery population. Both obesity and bariatric surgery are accompanied by a variety of vitamin and mineral deficiencies, with some affecting bone health. Currently, there is no consensus regarding bone health evaluation and its management in obese and postbariatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will focus on nutritional deficiencies in obese and postbariatric surgical patients, with a special focus on bone health. The latest findings on the complicated relationship between adipose tissue and bone will be discussed. And the presumed protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis will be evaluated. SUMMARY: Nutritional deficiencies in postbariatric patients already exist prior to the surgery. Therefore, a comprehensive nutritional evaluation prior to bariatric surgery is imperative, to prevent further decline of the already deficient nutrients. Nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D have an effect on bone health. Therefore, monitoring their level is important in preventing bone loss. Taking a multivitamin with minerals postbariatric surgery is a standard of practice. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.