A combined ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT) and a electroretinography (ERG) system is presented for simultaneous imaging of the retinal structure and physiological response to light stimulation in the rodent eye. The 1060-nm UHROCT system provides ∼3×5 μm (axial×lateral) resolution in the rat retina and time resolution of 22 μs. A custom-designed light stimulator integrated into the UHROCT imaging probe provides light stimuli with user-selected color, duration, and intensity. The performance of the combined system is demonstrated in vivo in healthy rats, and in a rat model of drug-induced outer retinal degeneration. Experimental results show correlation between the observed structural and physiological changes in the healthy and degenerated retina. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.