The Local Field Potential (LFP) is the analog signal recorded from a microelectrode inserted into cortex, typically in the frequency band of approximately 1 to 200 Hz. Here visual stimuli were flashed on in the receptive fields of primary visual cortical neurons in awake behaving macaques, and both isolated single units (neurons) and the LFP signal were recorded from the same unipolar microelectrode. The fall-off of single unit activity as a visual stimulus was moved from near the center to near the edge of the receptive field paralleled the fall-off of the stimuluslocked (evoked) LFP response. This suggests that the evoked LFP strongly reflects local neuronal activity. However, the evoked LFP could be significant even when the visual stimulus was completely outside the receptive field and the single unit response had fallen to zero, although this phenomenon was variable. Some of the nonlocal components of the LFP may be related to the slow distributed, or non-retinotopic, LFP signal previously observed in anesthetized animals. The induced (not timelocked to stimulus onset) component of the LFP showed significant increases only for stimuli within the receptive field of the single units. While the LFP primarily reflects local neuronal activity, it can also reflect neuronal activity at more distant sites, although these non-local components are typically more variable, slower, and weaker than the local components. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.