The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews

Academic Article

Abstract

  • © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid (-0.08 ± 0.05 D/day) both almost completely blocked myopia development. The treated eye vitreous chamber elongation, compared with the control eye, in all groups was consistent with the amount of myopia. When FD continued (days 12-16) without injections in the water and water + ascorbic acid groups, the rate of myopia development quickly increased. Thus, it appears the vehicles affected retinal signaling rather than causing damage. The effect of water and water + ascorbic acid may be due to reduced osmolality or ionic concentration near the tip of the injection pipette. The effect of ascorbic acid, compared to NaCl alone, may be due to its reported dopaminergic activity.
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    Author List

  • Ward AH; Siegwart JT; Frost MR; Norton TT
  • Start Page

  • 289
  • End Page

  • 296
  • Volume

  • 145