The purpose of this study was to analyze medical late effects among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Subjects included 248 CML survivors who received an HC transplant (related donors [RDs], n = 150; unrelated donors [URDs], n = 70; or autologous, n = 28) and had survived at least 2 years, and a comparison group 317 siblings. Subjects completed a 238-item survey on medical late effects. Compared with siblings, survivors were at a higher risk of developing ocular, oral health, endocrine, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurosensory, and neuromotor impairments. Multivariate analysis limited to RD and URD recipients found that chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with a higher risk of hypothyroidism, osteoporosis, cardiopulmonary, neurosensory, and neuromotor impairments. Overall health was reported as excellent, very good, or good in 78% of subjects, although those with cGVHD were more likely to report poor overall health. URD survivors were more likely to report a need for assistance with routine activities and that their current health prevented work or school attendance. This study demonstrates that HCT survivors, regardless or donor type, have a high prevalence of long-term health-related complications. However, adverse medical late effects with significant morbidity were uncommon. Chronic GVHD is the most important predictor of adverse medical late effects and poor overall health. © 2004 by The American Society of Hematology.