© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This review provides updates on the efforts for the development of prognostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer based on the race/ethnicity of patients. Since the clinical consequences of genetic and molecular alterations differ with patient race and ethnicity, the usefulness of these molecular alterations as biomarkers needs to be evaluated in different racial/ethnic groups. To accomplish personalized patient care, a combined analysis of multiple molecular alterations in DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), metabolites, and proteins in a single test is required to assess disease status in a precise way. Therefore, a special emphasis is placed on issues related to utility of recently identified genetic and molecular alterations in genes, miRNAs, and various “-omes” (e.g., proteomes, kinomes, metabolomes, exomes, methylomes) as candidate molecular markers to determine cancer progression (disease recurrence/relapse and metastasis) and to assess the efficacy of therapy in colorectal cancer in relation to patient race and ethnicity. This review will be useful for oncologists, pathologists, and basic and translational researchers.