Endothelial cells have been noted to have relatively low expression of the native receptor for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), and are thus refractory to Ad5 infection. In this study, we hypothesize that increases in the infectivity of Ad5 in primary human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), coronary artery (HCAEC) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) can be achieved through genetic capsid modification of Ad5 to bypass CAR-dependent infection. The modifications tested in this study include incorporation of an integrin-binding RGD peptide motif (Ad5.RGD), a poly-lysine motif (Ad5.pK7), a combination of both of these peptide domains (Ad5.RGD.pK7), an adenovirus serotype 3 knob domain (Ad5/3Luc1) and canine adenovirus serotype 1 or 2 knob domains (Ad5Luc1-CK1 and Ad5Luc1-CK2). In HPAEC and HCAEC, the greatest infectivity enhancements were achieved using Ad5/3Luc1 (26- fold and 30-fold respectively). HUVEC was most readily infected by Ad5Luc1-CK1 (213-fold). These results demonstrate that gains in Ad5 infectivity in endothelial cells can be accomplished with genetic capsid modifications. © Preuss et al.