Human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) attaches to its primary receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) as the first step of infection. However, CAR expression decreases as tumors progress, thereby diminishing the utility of HAdV-5-based vectors for cancer therapy. In contrast, many aggressive tumor cells highly express CD46, a cellular receptor for HAdV-3. We hypothesized that a mosaic HAdV vector, containing two kinds of fiber proteins, would provide extensive transduction in a heterogeneous population of tumor cells with varying expression levels of HAdV receptors. We therefore generated a fiber-mosaic HAdV vector displaying both a chimeric HAdV-3 fiber and the HAdV-5 fiber protein. We verified the structural integrity of purified viral particles and confirmed that the fiber-mosaic HAdV vector has expanded tropism. We conclude that the use of fiber-mosaic HAdV vectors is a promising approach for transducing a heterogeneous cell population with different expression levels of adenovirus receptors. © 2010.