The pathologies of many infectious, autoimmune and malignant diseases are influenced by the profiles of cytokine production in pro-inflammatory (TH1) and anti-inflammatory (TH2) T cells. Interindividual differences in cytokine profiles appear to be due, at least in part, to allelic polymorphism within regulatory regions of cytokine gene. Many studies have examined the relationship between cytokine gene polymorphism, cytokine gene expression in vitro, and the susceptibility to and clinical severity of diseases. A review of the findings of these studies is presented. An on-line version featuring appropriate updates is accessible from the World Wide Web site, http://www.pam.bris.ac.uk/services/GAI/cytokine4.htm.