© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) expression is induced by the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. SOCS3 then acts as a feedback inhibitor of JAK-STAT signaling. Previous studies have shown that knocking down SOCS3 in spinal cord neurons with Lentiviral delivery of SOCS3-targeting shRNA (shSOCS3) increased spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 (P-STAT3 Tyr), which in part contributed to decreased neuronal death and demyelination as well as enhanced dendritic regeneration and protection of neuronal morphology after SCI. However, the role of serine phosphorylation of STAT3 (P-STAT3 Ser) is in large part undetermined. Our purposes of this study were to evaluate the expression patterns of P-STAT3 Ser and to explore the possible role of SOCS3 in the regulation of P-STAT3 Ser expression. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine family, induced both P-STAT3 Tyr and P-STAT3 Ser in SH-SY5Y cells. Subcellular fractionation further revealed that P-STAT3 Ser was localized in mitochondria. Overexpression of SOCS3 with a Lentivirus-mediated approach in SH-SY5Y cells inhibited OSM-induced P-STAT3 Ser in both cytosol and mitochondria fractions. In contrast, OSM-induced P-STAT3 Ser was further upregulated in both cytosol and mitochondria when SOCS3 was knocked down by Lentivirus-delivered shSOCS3. Using a rat T8 spinal cord complete transection model, we found that SCI induced upregulation of P-STAT3 Ser in the mitochondria of macrophages/microglia and neurons both rostral and caudal to the injury site of spinal cord. Collectively, these results suggest that SOCS3 regulation of STAT3 signaling plays critical roles in stress conditions.