R-spondins are a new group of Wnt/β-catenin signaling agonists, however, the role of these proteins in bone remains unclear. We reported herein that R-sponin1 (Rspo1) acted synergistically with Wnt3A to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the uncommitted mesenchymal C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we found that Rspo1 at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml synergized strongly with Wnt3A to induce C2C12 osteoblastic differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression. These events were blocked by Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist Dickkopf-1. Finally, we demonstrated that Rspo1 synergized with Wnt3A to induce primary mouse osteoblast differentiation. Together, these findings suggest that Rpos1 may play an important role in bone remodeling. © 2008 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.