Purpose: Chromosome abnormalities are an important prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Recently, a subset of patients with hyperdiploid ALL and trisomy of chromosomes 4 and 10 has been reported to have a very favorable event-free survival. Rapid and accurate detection of these patients will allow them to be treated with highly effective and relatively nontoxic antimetabolite therapy. Because of inherent problems associated with conventional cancer cytogenetics, we examined the efficacy of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FJSH) to identify this ALL subgroup. Patients and Methods: Fifty uncultured bone marrow specimens from children with newly diagnosed ALL were examined for chromosomes 4 and 10 aneuploidy with FISH. These results were compared with routine cytogenetics and DNA Index (DI). Results: Interphase FISH cytogenetics identified the abnormal cell line(s) in all cases in which cytogenetics showed aneuploidy of chromosomes 4 and 10. In cases in which cytogenetics was not informative, FISH identified the presence of an aneuploid chromosome 4 and/or 10 cell line in concordance with the DI. Conclusions: FISH interphase cytogenetics can accurately detect chromosome 4 and 10 aneuploidy in leukemic cells. It is a rapid and clinically applicable technique that can reliably identify childhood ALL cases who have trisomy of chromosomes 4 and 10 and who have very favorable event-free survival.