Background:Among HIV-infected patients, hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with lower cholesterol levels, but it remains unclear how it affects cardiovascular outcomes. Methods:We performed logistic regression to evaluate acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) events by HCV status among HIV-infected US veterans in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (1996-2004). We then performed survival analyses to evaluate incident AMI and CVD, exploring antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a time-dependent variable. Results:A total of 19 424 HIV-infected patients [31.6% of whom were HCV-coinfected (HIV/HCV)] contributed 76 376 patient-years of follow-up. HCV coinfection was associated with lower rates of hypercholesterolaemia (18.0% in HIV/HCV vs. 30.7% in HIV-only patients; P<0.001), but higher rates of hypertension (43.8%. vs. 35.6%; P<0.0001), type 2 diabetes mellitus (16.2%vs. 11.1%; P<0.0001) and smoking (36.7%vs. 24.7%;P=0.009). Rates of AMI and CVD were significantly higher among HIV/HCV than HIV-only patients: 4.19 vs. 3.36 events/1000 patient-years, respectively (P<0.001), for AMI; and 12.47 vs. 11.12 events/1000 patient-years, respectively (P<0.001), for CVD. When analyses were controlled for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, age and duration of ART, hazard ratios (HRs) among those with HIV/HCV (vs. HIV only) were 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.61; P=0.072] for AMI and 1.20 (CI 1.04-1.38; P=0.013) for CVD. Hypertension (HR 2.05; P<0.001), greater age (HR 1.79; P<0.001) and longer duration (cumulative years) of antiretroviral use (HR 1.12; P=0.0411) were also associated with increased risk of AMI in the adjusted model. Conclusions:In the HAART era, HCV coinfection was associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD and a trend towards an increased risk of AMI among HIV-infected patients. No claim to original US government works.