Objective. To perform a Cochrane systematic review of benefit (American College of Rheumatology 50% improvement criteria; ACR50) and safety (adverse events and withdrawals) of golimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), OVID Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Science Citation Index (Web of Science), and Current Controlled Trials databases for randomized or controlled clinical trials of golimumab compared to placebo or disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in adults with RA. Two authors independently selected appropriate studies and abstracted study characteristics and safety and efficacy data and performed risk-ofbias assessment.We calculated mean differences for continuous measures, and relative risks for categorical measures. Results. Four randomized controlled trials with 1231 golimumab-treated and 483 placebo-treated patients were included. Of these, 436 were treated with golimumab at 50 mg every 4 weeks [a dosage approved by the US Food and DrugAdministration (FDA)]. At an average of 4-6 months, compared to patients treated with placebo and methotrexate (MTX), patients treated with the FDA-approved dosage of golimumab and MTX were 2.6 times more likely to reach ACR50 (p = 0.005, 95% CI 1.3, 4.9; absolute percentage, 38% vs 15%) and 0.5 times as likely to have overall withdrawals (p = 0.005, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8; absolute percentage, 5% vs 10%). Golimumab-treated patients were significantly more likely than those taking placebo to achieve remission (22% vs 4%; p < 0.00001), and to have improvement in functional ability on the Health Assessment questionnaire [0.2 points lower (p < 0.00001, 95% CI 0.25, 0.15); absolute risk difference, -20% (95% CI -25% to -15%); relative percentage difference, -11% (95% CI-14% to -8.3%)]. The studies were too small and short to be powered sufficiently for safety outcomes, but no substantive statistically significant differences were noted between golimumab and placebo regarding adverse events, serious adverse events, infections, serious infections, lung infections, tuberculosis, cancer, withdrawals due to adverse events, and withdrawals due to inefficacy and deaths. Conclusion. At the approved dosage, in patients with active RA taking background MTX, golimumab is significantly more beneficial than placebo. The short-term safety profile is reasonable. Longterm surveillance studies are needed for safety assessment. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.