This study examined the association of social support (SS) and affective disturbance among low-income primary care patients with no chronic illnesses vs. those with type 2 diabetes vs. those with other chronic illnesses. The sample was predominantly middle aged (47.2 years old), African American (74%) and female (80%), with an average individual monthly income of approximately $500. Participants (N = 326) were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, IV and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. Logistic regression results indicated that each standard deviation decrease in SS, increased the odds of having a depressive or anxiety disorder diagnosis by .618 OR (CI .472, .808, p < .000) for all study participants; .438 OR (95% CI .195, .987, p = .046) for those with hypertension, asthma and/or arthritis; and .326 OR (95% CI .141, .755, p = .009) for those with type 2 diabetes. Results suggest that SS may serve an important role in the association between stress and depression/anxiety diagnoses among low-income, primary care patients. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.