This study examined the prevalence of the most prominent high-risk behaviors that contribute to mortality in the United States (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, and high dietary fat intake) and obesity among low-income patients attending primary care clinics in Louisiana. The sample consisted of 1,132 patients attending primary care clinics that were randomly selected and administered a demographic questionnaire, the 1994 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and the Eating Patterns Questionnaire. Participants consisted predominantly of African-American (67.7%), uninsured (73.3%), low-income, middle-aged females. Prevalence of high-risk behaviors included sedentary lifestyle (47.1%), cigarette smoking (26.2%), and high dietary fat intake (61.3%). Prevalence of obesity was 63.5%. In conclusion, low-income patients attending primary care clinics in Louisiana display a high frequency of important high-risk behaviors that contribute to mortality in this country. Obesity is also extremely prevalent in this population. Clinical implications and directions for future studies are discussed.