One mechanism which generates diversity in immunoglobulin variable (V) regions is flexibility in the site of recombination among the constituent genetic elements1-7. Within a specific antibody family (that is, a particular VH-VL combination), variability in V-D-J rearrangement not only leads to sequence diversity at the boundary of the juxtaposed genes, but also enables the total length of the third complementarity-determining region (CDR-3) of the heavy chain to be conserved8. We demonstrate here that the junctional diversity inherent in rearranged immunoglobulin genes can have consequences for the biology of the immune system. Sequence analysis of the expressed immunoglobulin genes of idiotypically variant as opposed to conventional B lymphocytes of a dominant antibody family showed that the variant B cells undergo a novel D-JH joining event such that an extra amino acid is inserted into the heavy chain CDR-3. The unique D-region conformation possessed by the variant B cells accounts for previous observations which showed that variant and conventional B cells could be differentially regulated in vivo by an autologous set of idiotope-specific B lymphocytes9. Our findings indicate that D-region structure can determine the expression of regulatory idiotopes and suggest that the conservation of heavy-chain CDR-3 length within an antibody family may reflect regulatory as well as functional constraints. © 1984 Nature Publishing Group.