Although the primary care setting offers an innovative option for weight loss interventions, there is minimal research examining this type of intervention with low-income minority women. Further, there is a lack of research on the long-term effects of these programs. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the weight loss maintenance of low-income African-American women participating in a primary care weight management intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with overweight and obese women (N = 144) enrolled at two primary care clinics. Women received a 6-month tailored weight loss intervention delivered by their primary care physician and completed follow-up assessments 9, 12, and 18 months following randomization. The weight loss maintenance of the tailored intervention was compared to a standard care comparison group. The weight loss of intervention participants (-1.52 ± 3.72 kg) was significantly greater than that of standard care participants (0.61 ± 3.37 kg) at month 9 (P = 0.01). However, there was no difference between the groups at the 12-month or 18-month follow-ups. Participants receiving a tailored weight loss intervention from their physician were able to maintain their modest weight loss up to 3-6 months following treatment. Women demonstrated weight regain at the 18-month follow-up assessment, suggesting that more intensive follow-up in the primary care setting may be needed to obtain successful long-term weight loss maintenance. © 2008 The Obesity Society.