Curative therapy for childhood cancer has improved significantly in the last 2 decades such that, at present, ∼80% of all children with cancer are likely to survive ≥5 years after diagnosis. Prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of long-term sequelae of therapy have become increasingly more significant as survival rates continue to improve. Cardiovascular disease is a well-recognized cause of increased late morbidity and mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. The Children's Oncology Group Late Effects Committee and Nursing Discipline and Patient Advocacy Committee have recently developed guidelines for follow-up of long-term survivors of pediatric cancer. A multidisciplinary task force critically reviewed the existing literature to evaluate the evidence for the cardiovascular screening recommended by the Children's Oncology Group guidelines. In this review we outline the clinical manifestations of late cardiovascular toxicities, suggest modalities and frequency of monitoring, and address some of the controversial and unresolved issues regarding cardiovascular disease in childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2008 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.