Objective: To characterize the current usage of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) by pediatric rheumatologists and the perceived disadvantages of and obstacles to IACI therapy. Methods: We mailed a 32-item questionnaire to pediatric rheumatologists in the United States and Canada (n=201) to assess treatment strategies for the initial treatment of monoarthritis of the knee in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Information regarding the usage of IACI for all patients with JIA and physicians' perceptions of IACI therapy was obtained. Respondents were dichotomized into those who performed frequent pediatric IACI (greater than 50 IACI in the last 12 months) and those who did not. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine (64%) completed questionnaires were returned. IACI were recommended as one therapy for JIA by 99% of respondents, and 90% personally perform IACI. Frequent IACI were performed by 22%, and 15% hadperformed greater than 10 IACI in a single pediatric patient at one time. Those who did not perform frequent IACI were more likely to report concern about the pain of the procedure, the availability of nursing support, and their own comfort with performing the procedure; they were less likely to have performed greater than 20 pediatric IACI during fellowship training and evaluated fewer clinic patients per week. Conclusion: IACI are essentially universally recommended in the treatment regimen for JIA. However, there are differences in the usage of IACI among pediatric rheumatologists. The frequency of IACI use is associated with different perceptions of and training received in IACI therapy. © Copyright Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2008.