Context: Type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia (T1HLP) in childhood is most often due to genetic deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or other related proteins. Objective: The aim was to report a case of marked hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis due to the presence of LPL autoantibody in a young girl who was subsequently diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome. Subject and Methods: A 9-yr-old African-American girl presented with acute pancreatitis and serum triglycerides of 4784 mg/dl. Strict restriction of dietary fat reduced serum triglycerides, but she continued to experience recurrent pancreatitis. Approximately 18 months thereafter, she developed transient pauciarticular arthritis with elevated serum antinuclear antibody (>1:1280). Minor salivary gland biopsy revealed chronic sialadenitis with a dense periductal lymphocytic aggregate suggestive of Sjögren's syndrome. Genomic DNA was analyzed for LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, and LMF1. Immunoblotting was performed to detect serum LPL autoantibody. Results: The patient had no disease-causing variants in LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, or LMF1. Immunoblotting revealed serum LPL antibody. The patient responded to immunosuppressive therapy for Sjögren's syndrome with resolution of hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusions: Unexplained T1HLP in childhood could be secondary to LPL deficiency induced by autoantibodies. Therefore, diagnosis of autoimmune T1HLP should be entertained if clinical features are suggestive of an autoimmune process. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.