Adult Development, Control, and Adaptive Functioning

Academic Article


  • This article examines variations in control over the adult life course and their relation to adaptive functioning. First, normative adult physical declines and the ageā€graded structure of western societies are described, in order to identify biological and societal constraints on exercising primary control. The central theme of this article is that primary control first increases as humans develop from infancy through middle age and then decreases in old age. In order to minimize losses in and maintain the potential for primary control, individuals increasingly rely on cognitively based secondary control processes during middle and old age. Finally, the article reviews the diverse literatures bearing on control processes throughout the adult life course. 1991 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Schulz R; Heckhausen J; Locher JL
  • Start Page

  • 177
  • End Page

  • 196
  • Volume

  • 47
  • Issue

  • 4