The Class 2 α-helical cytokines consist of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 (Mda-7), and IL-26, interferons (IFN-α, -β, -ε, -κ, -ω, -δ, -τ, and -γ) and interferon-like molecules (limitin, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The interaction of these cytokines with their specific receptor molecules initiates a broad and varied array of signals that induce cellular antiviral states, modulate inflammatory responses, inhibit or stimulate cell growth, produce or inhibit apoptosis, and affect many immune mechanisms. The information derived from crystal structures and molecular evolution has led to progress in the analysis of the molecular mechanisms initiating their biological activities. These cytokines have significant roles in a variety of pathophysiological processes as well as in regulation of the immune system. Further investigation of these critical intercellular signaling molecules will provide important information to enable these proteins to be used more extensively in therapy for a variety of diseases.