Interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2) is a critical component of the IL-10·IL-10R1·IL-10R2 complex which regulates IL-10-mediated immunomodulatory responses. The ternary IL-10 signaling complex is assembled in a sequential order with the IL-10·IL-10R1 interaction occurring first followed by engagement of the IL-10R2 chain. In this study we map the IL-10R2 binding site on IL-10 using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays. Critical IL-10R2 binding residues are located in helix A adjacent to the previously identified IL-10R1 recognition surface. Interestingly, IL-10R2 binding residues located in the N-terminal end of helixAexhibit large structural differences between unbound cIL-10 and cIL-10·IL-10R1 crystal structures. This suggests IL-10R1-induced conformational changes regulate IL-10R2 binding and assembly of the ternary IL-10·IL-10R1·IL-10R2 complex. The basic mechanistic features of the assembly process are likely shared by six additional class-2 cytokines (viral IL-10s, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28A, IL28B, and IL-29) to promote IL-10R2 binding to six additional receptor complexes. These studies highlight the importance of structure in regulating low affinity protein-protein interactions and IL-10 signal transduction.