© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Scope: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) intake is associated with protection from obesity; however, the mechanisms of protection remain poorly characterized. The stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (SLC2A4), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBF1) genes are transcriptionally regulated by n-3 PUFA intake and harbor polymorphisms associated with obesity. The present study investigated how consumption of n-3 PUFA modifies associations between SCD, SLC2A4, and SREBF1 polymorphisms and anthropometric variables and metabolic phenotypes. Materials and methods: Anthropometric variables and metabolic phenotypes were measured in a cross-sectional sample of Yup’ik individuals (n = 1135) and 33 polymorphisms were tested for main effects and interactions using linear models that account for familial correlations. n-3 PUFA intake was estimated using red blood cell nitrogen stable isotope ratios. SCD polymorphisms were associated with ApoA1 concentration and n-3 PUFA interactions with SCD polymorphisms were associated with reduced fasting cholesterol levels and waist-to-hip ratio. SLC2A4 polymorphisms were associated with hip circumference, high-density lipoprotein and ApoA1 concentrations. SREBF1 polymorphisms were associated with low-density lipoprotein and HOMA-IR and n-3 PUFA interactions were associated with reduced fasting insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Conclusion: The results suggest that an individual’s genotype may interact with dietary n-3 PUFAs in ways that are associated with protection from obesity-related diseases in Yup’ik people.