Implementation research is a new scientific discipline emerging from the recognition that the public does not derive sufficient or rapid benefit from advances in the health sciences (Berwick DM, JAMA 289:1969–1975, 2003; Lenfant C, N Engl J Med 349:868–874, 2003). One often-quoted estimate claims that it takes an average of 17 years for even well-established clinical knowledge to be fully adopted into routine practice (Kiefe CI, Sales A, J Gen Intern Med 21(Suppl 2):S67–S70, 2006). In this chapter, we will discuss particular barriers to evidence implementation, present tools for implementation research, and provide a framework for designing implementation research studies, emphasizing the randomized trial. The reader is advised that this chapter only provides a basic introduction to several concepts for which new approaches are rapidly emerging. Therefore, our goal is to stimulate interest and promote additional in-depth learning for those who wish to develop new implementation research projects or better understand this exciting field.