Long-duration ventricular fibrillation exhibits 2 distinct organized states

Academic Article


  • Background-Previous studies showed that endocardial activation during long-duration ventricular fibrillation (VF) exhibits organized activity. We identified and quantified the different types of organized activity. Methods and Results-Two 64-electrode basket catheters were inserted, respectively, into the left ventricle and right ventricle of dogs to record endocardial activation from the endocardium during 7 minutes of VF (controls, n=6). The study was repeated with the KATP channel opener pinacidil (n=6) and the calcium channel blocker flunarizine (n=6). After 2 minutes of VF without drugs, 2 highly organized left ventricular endocardial activation patterns were observed: (1) ventricular electric synchrony pattern, in which endocardial activation arose focally and either had a propagation sequence similar to sinus rhythm or arose near papillary muscles, and (2) stable pattern, in which activation was regular and repeatable, sometimes forming a stable re-entrant circuit around the left ventricular apex. Between 3 and 7 minutes of VF, the percent of time ventricular electric synchrony was present was control=25%, flunarizine=24% (P=0.44), and pinacidil=0.1% (P<0.001) and the percent of time stable pattern was present was control=71%, flunarizine=48% (P<0.001), and pinacidil=56% (P<0.001). The remainder of the time, nonstable re-entrant activation with little repeatability was present. Conclusions-After 3 minutes, VF exhibits 2 highly organized endocardial activation patterns 96% of the time, one potentially arising focally in the Purkinje system that was prevented with a KATP channel opener but not a calcium channel blocker and the other potentially arising from a stable re-entrant circuit near the apical left ventricular endocardium. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Li L; Zheng X; Dosdall DJ; Huang J; Pogwizd SM; Ideker RE
  • Start Page

  • 1192
  • End Page

  • 1199
  • Volume

  • 6
  • Issue

  • 6