The effect of immunization with neural and nonneural antigens on hypothalamic and mesencephalic neurotransmission and antibody response have been investigated. Treatment of SJL/N mice with bovine myelin basic protein (BMBP), mouse spinal cord homogenate (MSCH) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) produced no significant changes in the average hypothalamic and mesencephalic noradrenaline (NA) or serotonin (5-HT) content. In Balb/c mice, however, treatment with BMBP caused a significant increase in mesencephalic NA, and treatment with MSCH caused a significant increase in hypothalamic 5-HT 3 weeks after the first antigenic challenge. The SJL/N strain showed a high antibody response to BMBP and BSA, and a moderate one to MSCH, while in Balb/c mice, there was a low response to BMBP, a moderate one to MSCH and a high response to BSA. Significant, positive correlations were found between the level of antigen-specific serum antibodies and the following neurotransmitters: hypothalamic NA in the BMBP and MSCH-treated groups, hypothalamic 5-HT in the MSCH-treated group, mesencephalic NA and 5-HT in the BMBP-treated group, and mesencephalic 5-HT in the MSCH-treated SJL/N animals. No significant correlations between the levels of antibodies and neurotransmitters have been found either in the BSA-immunized SJL/N animals, or in any of the groups of Balb/c mice treated with BMBP, MSCH or BSA.