Hearing impairment (HI) is a complex disorder, requiring a number of healthcareprofessions working together. The role of the genetics professional, either a medicalgeneticist or genetic counselor, is to identify the genetic aetiology of the hearingimpairment-distinguishing non-genetic from genetic as well as syndromic from nonsyndromicforms of genetic hearing impairment. The past decade has seen tremendousadvances in understanding the genetic basis of non-syndromic HI, which has resulted inthe clinical availability of several genetic tests. These have important implications forpatients and family members as well as the healthcare team, as the results impact medicalmanagement. However, the benefits of such testing are not realized without proper preandpost- test genetic counseling. Such counseling can provide not only accuraterecurrence risk assessment but also guide medical management and provide someprognostic information.© 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.