CE has been used widely as an analytical tool with high separation power taking advantage of size, charge-to-size ratio, or isoelectric point of various analytes. In combination with detection methods, such as UV absorption, electrochemical detection, fluorescence, or mass spectrometry (MS), it allows the separation and detection of inorganic and organic ions, as well as complex compounds, such as polypeptides, nucleic acids, including PCR amplicons from viruses or bacteria. Recent interest in identification of biomarkers of diseases using body fluids leads to development of CE-MS techniques. These applications allowed identification of new potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions. In this report, we present a technical overview of various CE techniques and discuss their applications in clinical medicine. © 2007 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.