Purpose: The selection of a cycloplegic agent depends on the desired outcome, the characteristics of the patient receiving the drug, and the associated risks. The Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia (OLSM) has used 1% tropicamide to assess the ocular components and cycloplegic refractions in a large cohort of predominantly Caucasian children. Although tropicamide has provided adequate cycloplegia and mydriasis for the OLSM cohort, conventional clinical wisdom and scientific investigations have suggested that tropicamide might not produce adequate cycloplegia and mydriasis for subjects with darker iris pigmentation. In this study one drop of 1% tropicamide followed by one drop of 1% cyclopentolate was used to determine their effectiveness in producing adequate cycloplegia and mydriasis for cycloplegic refraction and ocular component measurements in a group of African-American children. Methods: Nineteen children [age range 5.5 to 15.6 years, mean 8.4 years ± (SD) 2.5 years] were tested at Family HealthCare of Alabama, Eutaw, AL. Their accommodative responses were measured using a Canon R-1 autorefractor prior to and at 30, 45, and 60 min after instillation of one drop of 0.5% proparacaine, 1% tropicamide (Mydriacyl), and 1% cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl) in both eyes. A target of 20/155 letters in a 4 x 4 grid positioned behind a +6.50 diopter (D) Badal lens provided accommodative stimuli of 1.00 D, 2.00 D, and 4.00 D. Results: All results are presented as mean ± 1 SD. Pupils, measured from video frames, dilated rapidly and maximally at 30 min after instillation of eye drops (7.3 ± 0.5 mm) Predilation, the mean accommodative responses were 0.17 ± 0.29 D for the 1.00 D stimulus, 1.01 ± 0.40 D for the 2.00 D stimulus, and 2.77 ± 0.74 for the 4.00 D stimulus. At 30 min after drop instillation, the responses were 0.07 ± 0.14 D for the 1.00 D stimulus, 0.36 ± 0.35 D for the 2.00 D stimulus, and 0.77 ± 0.61 for the 4.00 D stimulus. Results were very similar at 45 and 60 min after drop instillation. Conclusions: Combining 1% tropicamide and 1% cyclopentolate was very effective in providing both cycloplegia and mydriasis adequate for ocular biometry and cycloplegic refractions 30 min after drop instillation in African-American children.