Secretory IgA (S-IgA) mediates local immunity to influenza virus in the murine upper respiratory tract and may play an important role in local immunity to various microorganisms in the female reproductive tract as well. Although the presence of IgA in cervicovaginal or uterine secretions has been correlated with immunity to a number of pathogens, there has been no direct demonstration of the mediation of uterine antiviral immunity by S-IgA. Influenza virus, although not a normal pathogen of the reproductive tract, was used to develop a model for the investigation of mucosal immunity in the uterus. PRS (H1N1) influenza virus injected into the ovarian bursa of BALB/c mice grew well, with peak titers between days 3 and 5. Intravenous injection of polymeric IgA anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibody before or 30 min after viral challenge protected mice against viral infection. We believe this work to be the first direct demonstration of S-IgA-mediated antiviral uterine immunity. It provides a model for further investigation of immunity in the female reproductive tract. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.