Background: Only a few researchers have examined quality of life (QOL) outcomes more than 5 years after heart transplantation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe QOL (overall, satisfaction with, and perceived importance); identify differences in QOL by age, sex, and race; and identify predictors of QOL at 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation. Methods: A nonrandom sample of 231 patients (60 years of age, 76% men, 90% white, 79% married, and fairly well educated) who were 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation were investigated. Patients completed 12 QOL instruments via self-report. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ2, independent t-tests, correlations, and stepwise multiple regression. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Patient satisfaction with all areas of life was high at 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation. Similarly, patients believed that these same areas of life were very important. Yet areas of QOL with lower levels of satisfaction were identified. Patients who were <60 years were more satisfied with their QOL than patients <60 years. At 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation, almost 80% of variance in QOL was explained by psychological, physical, social, clinical, and demographic variables. Conclusions: At 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation, patients were very satisfied with their QOL, although differences in level of satisfaction were identified by demographic variables, and areas of QOL with lower levels of satisfaction were identified. Understanding those variables that contribute to QOL in the long term after heart transplantation provides direction for assisting patients to improve their QOL. Copyright © 2005 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.