The Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) group was founded in 1991 as a voluntary, collaborative effort dedicated to the advancement of the science and treatment of children following listing for heart transplantation. Since 1993, the PHTS has collected data in an international, prospective, event-driven database that examines risk factors for outcome events following listing for transplantation. The events include transplantation, death, rejection, infection, malignancy, graft vasculopathy, and retransplantation. Over its 12 years of existence, the PHTS has made major contributions to the field of pediatric heart transplantation, especially in the areas of outcome analysis and risk factor assessment for death and other major morbidities after listing and after transplantation. The new challenges facing the PHTS include how to implement the practice of evidence-based medicine in the field of pediatric heart transplantation and how to support ongoing data collection and analysis to provide long-term outcomes as the PHTS subjects enter their second decade after transplantation. © 2006 the Authors Journal compilation © 2006 Blackwell Publishing, Inc.