Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are gasotransmitter molecules important in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Although these molecules were first known as environmental toxicants, it is now evident that that they are intricately involved in diverse cellular functions with impact on numerous physiological and pathogenic processes. NO and H2S share some common characteristics but also have unique chemical properties that suggest potential complementary interactions between the two in affecting cellular biochemistry and metabolism. Central among these is the interactions between NO, H2S, and thiols that constitute new ways to regulate protein function, signaling, and cellular responses. In this review, we discuss fundamental biochemical principals, molecular functions, measurement methods, and the pathophysiological relevance of NO and H2S.