Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, regulating numerous cellular signaling pathways and controlling the excitability of central synapses both pre- and postsynaptically. Localization, cell surface expression, and activity-dependent regulation of glutamate receptors in both neurons and glia are performed and maintained by a complex network of protein-protein interactions associated with targeting, anchoring, and spatially organizing synaptic proteins at the cell membrane. Using in situ hybridization, we examined the expression of transcripts encoding the AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1-GluR4) and a family of AMPA-related intracellular proteins. We focused on PDZ-proteins that are involved in the regulated pool and anchoring AMPA subunits to the cell membrane (PICK1, syntenin), and those maintaining the constitutive pool of AMPA receptors at the glutamatergic synapse (NSF, stargazin). In addition, we studied a fifth protein, KIAA1719, with high homology to the rat PDZ protein ABP, associated with the clustering of AMPA receptors at the glutamate synapse. The AMPA subunits showed significant differences in regional expression, especially in the neocortex, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellum. The expression of other proteins, even those related to a specific AMPA subunit (such as ABP and PICK1 to GluR2 and GluR3), often had different distributions, whereas others (like NSF) are ubiquitously distributed in the brain. These results suggest that AMPA subunits and related intracellular proteins are differentially distributed in the macaque brain, and in numerous structures there are significant mismatches, suggesting additional functional properties of the associated intracellular proteins. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.