The treatment of schizophrenia has been focused on modulation of dopamine receptors for over 50 years. Recent developments have implicated other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of this illness. The discovery and characterization of glutamate receptors and their roles in the brain has lead to novel approaches for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this article, we review drugs that modulate ionotropic gluamate receptors and discuss their efficacy for the treatment of this often debilitating severe mental illness. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.