Chemoresistance due to heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) hampers the long-term efficacy of first-line therapies for lung cancer. Current combination therapies for lung cancer provide only modest improvement in survival, implicating necessity for novel approaches that suppress malignant growth and stimulate long-term antitumor immunity. Oxidative stress in the TME promotes immunosuppression by tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which inhibit host protective antitumor immunity. Using a murine model of lung cancer, we demonstrate that a combination treatment with gemcitabine and a superoxide dismutase mimetic targets immunosuppressive MDSC in the TME and enhances the quantity and quality of both effector and memory CD8+ T-cell responses. At the effector cell function level, the unique combination therapy targeting MDSC and redox signaling greatly enhanced cytolytic CD8+ T-cell response and further decreased regulatory T cell infiltration. For long-term antitumor effects, this therapy altered the metabolism of memory cells with self-renewing phenotype and provided a preferential advantage for survival of memory subsets with longterm efficacy and persistence. Adoptive transfer of memory cells from this combination therapy prolonged survival of tumor-bearing recipients. Furthermore, the adoptively transferred memory cells responded to tumor rechallenge exerting long-term persistence. This approach offers a new paradigm to inhibit immunosuppression by direct targeting of MDSC function, to generate effector and persistent memory cells for tumor eradication, and to prevent lung cancer relapse. ©2013 AACR.