Exposure to chlorine gas (Cl2) primarily causes injury to the lung and is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress mediated by reactive chlorine species. Reducing lung injury and improving respiratory function are the principal therapeutic goals in treating individuals exposed to Cl2 gas. Less is known on the potential for Cl2 gas exposure to cause injury to extrapulmonary tissues and specifically to mediate endothelial dysfunction. This concept is forwarded in this article on the basis that (1) many irritant gases whose reactivity is limited to the lung have now been shown to have effects that promote endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vasculature, and as such lead to the acute and chronic cardiovascular disease events (e.g., myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis); and (2) that endogenously produced reactive chlorine species are now considered to be central in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This article discusses these two areas with the view of providing a framework in which potential extrapulmonary toxic effects of Cl2 gas exposure may be considered.