We previously reported that ICAM-1 expression modulates endothelial intracellular glutathione (GSH) metabolism through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that the cytoplasmic tail of ICAM-1 is critically involved in governing intracellular GSH production. Peptides containing the antennapedia cell-permeative sequence (AP) or an AP peptide linked to the transmembrane and cytosolic tail of ICAM-1 (AP-ICAM) were synthesized and used to measure alterations in redox status in cultured endothelial cells and determine their biological effect. Treatment with AP-ICAM significantly increased GSH concentrations and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) activity over time. Measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with DCF revealed a rapid increase in ROS generation after AP-ICAM treatment. Measurement of superoxide production with hydroethidium revealed biphasic production at 30. min and 6. h after treatment with AP-ICAM. Apocynin, DPI, catalase, or SOD attenuated AP-ICAM-dependent ROS production, GCL activity, and GSH production, implicating superoxide production and dismutation to peroxide. Consistent with these findings, NOX4 siRNA knockdown blocked AP-ICAM peptide increases in GSH or GCL activity, demonstrating the importance of NADPH oxidase. Last, inhibition of PI3-kinase activity with LY 294002 or wortmannin blocked AP-ICAM GSH induction and ROS production. These data reveal that the ICAM-1 cytoplasmic tail regulates production of endothelial GSH through a NOX4/PI3-kinase-dependent redox-sensitive pathway. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.