On a daily basis, the heart is subjected to dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and neurohumoral influences, many of which occur in a temporally predictable manner. In order to preserve cardiac performance, the heart must therefore maintain metabolic flexibility, even within the confines of a single day. Recent studies have established mechanistic links between time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial metabolism and the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. More specifically, evidence suggests that this cell autonomous molecular mechanism regulates myocardial glucose uptake, flux through both glycolysis and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pyruvate oxidation, as well as glycogen, triglyceride, and protein turnover. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock confers the selective advantage of anticipation of increased energetic demand during the awake period. Here, we review the accumulative evidence in support of this hypothesis thus far, and discuss the possibility that attenuation of these metabolic rhythms, through disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, contributes towards the etiology of cardiac dysfunction in various disease states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". © 2012.