Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is critical for Ca2+ signaling in nonexcitable cells; however, its role in the regulation of cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis has only recently been investigated. The increased understanding of the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in regulating SOCE combined with recent studies demonstrating the presence of STIM1 in cardiomyocytes provides support that this pathway co-exists in the heart with the more widely recognized Ca2+ handling pathways associated with excitation-contraction coupling. There is now substantial evidence that STIM1-mediated SOCE plays a key role in mediating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, both in vitro and in vivo, and there is growing support for the contribution of SOCE to Ca2+ overload associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the molecular regulation of SOCE and discuss the evidence supporting the role of STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE in regulating cardiomyocyte function. © 2013 the American Physiological Society.