We have previously shown that glucosamine administration resulted in higher cardiac output and improved tissue perfusion after trauma-hemorrhage with resuscitation in rats, which was associated with the increased levels of protein O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of glucosamine on the survival, without resuscitation, in rats. Adult male rats underwent midline laparotomy and 55% of total blood volume was withdrawn for 25 min under isoflurane anesthesia. At the end of the hemorrhage period, 2.5 mL of 150 mM glucosamine or equivalent osmolarity of mannitol solution was injected intravenously for 10 min. The survival time, mean blood pressure, heart rate, and central body temperature were monitored continuously; then, the O-GlcNAc levels in heart, brain, liver, and muscle were measured by means of Western blot analysis. Glucosamine administration significantly increased the survival rate in comparison with mannitol administration (percentage of survival after 2 h, 47% vs. 20%; P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the glucosamine group for 18 min after treatment. The protein O-GlcNAc levels, assessed 30 min after glucosamine treatment, were significantly increased in the heart, brain, and liver. These data demonstrate that i.v. glucosamine administration improves the survival rate after trauma-hemorrhage without resuscitation; this effect may be related to the glucosamine-induced increase in protein O-glycosylation. Furthermore, the increase in mean arterial pressure may suggest a vasoactive and/or positive inotropic effect of glucosamine in hypovolemic shock. ©2007The Shock Society.