An early and rapid response to severe injury or trauma is the development of hyperglycemia, which has long been thought to be an essential survival response by providing fuel for vital organ systems and facilitating mobilization of interstitial fluid reserves by increasing osmolarity. However, glucose can also be metabolized via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), leading to the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). UDP-GlcNAc is a substrate for the addition, via an O-linkage, of a single N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins (O-glycosylation, O-GlcNAc). There is increasing appreciation that protein O-glycosylation is a highly dynamic posttranslational modification that plays a key role in signal transduction pathways. Sustained increases in O-GlcNAc have been implicated in the development of diabetes and diabetic complications; however, recent studies have demonstrated that stress leads to a transient increase in O-GlcNAc levels that is associated with increased tolerance to stress. Indeed, activation of pathways leading to O-GlcNAc formation improves cell survival after I/R injury, whereas inhibition of O-GlcNAc formation decreases cell survival. In addition, in rodent models of trauma-hemorrhage, increasing O-GlcNAc levels during resuscitation improves cardiac function and organ perfusion and attenuates the inflammatory response. At the cellular level, increasing O-GlcNAc levels attenuates nuclear factor-κB activation. It is noteworthy that other metabolic-based treatments for severe injury such as glucose-insulin-potassium and glutamine also lead to increased HBP flux and O-GlcNAc levels. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the role of the HBP and O-GlcNAc on the regulation of cell function and survival and to present evidence to support the notion that activation of these pathways represents a novel treatment strategy for severe injury and trauma. ©2008The Shock Society.